In the world of sprinting, speed endurance training is a widely discussed topic. Despite the fact that the term is widely known, a shockingly high number of athletes and coaches have no clue on what speed endurance training actually is, nor do they know how to appropriately apply it to their sprint training programs. As such, I’d like to clear up some confusion on the topic.
What is speed endurance?
Speed endurance is the quality of being able to maintain sprinting velocities at or near your maximal velocity. Another way to look at speed endurance is the ability to minimize deceleration after achieving maximal velocity (top speed). The sprints are generally considered to be made up of an acceleration phase, a top speed phase, and then a deceleration phase.
As stated, speed endurance is the quality which allows you to minimize deceleration late in the race. When it looks like someone is pulling ahead of everyone else, usually they are simply decelerating at a lesser rate than their competition.
What factors influence your speed endurance capabilities?
There are two main components to speed endurance – the technical ability to maintain proper sprint mechanics while under fatigue, and the physiological aspects such as energy system conditioning and elastic tissue qualities.
On the technical side, speed endurance should be viewed as the ability to maintain maximal velocity sprint mechanics while under ever-increasing levels of fatigue. Training for speed endurance should include significant amounts of time and effort spent on developing the skills required to maintain maximal velocity sprint mechanics.
On the physiological side, speed endurance is the zone of work where lactate tends to accumulate, which increases the acidity of the fluids within muscle due to increasing level so hydrogen ions. In this regard, speed endurance training needs to target energy systems and movement characteristics that lend themselves to being able to sprint as fast as possible for a relatively long time.
Note that you do not train these factors separately. Efficient technique will minimize the accumulation physiological stress, while an athlete who has trained their body physiologically will have an easier time maintaining their technique due to lower accumulation of fatigue.
How do you train for speed endurance?
Depending on your skill level, current physical state, and where you are at relative to your competitive season, you have some options regarding how to implement speed endurance work.
Early in the training year, speed endurance preparation work can be done with hill sprints or sub-maximal sprints done in similar ranges as what is listed below – the primary difference being that early in the year it is wise to keep the intensity lower as the body acclimates to training. Within a few weeks, athletes should be ready for real speed endurance work.
To keep things simple, here are the basic parameters:
- 60m-150m per repetition
- 7-17 seconds per repetition
- 90% or greater intensity
- 300m-500m of total work per session
- Steady state or fluctuating tempo
- Steady State – Entire rep done at 95%
- Fluctuating – 90m Sprint-Float-Sprint : Every 30m segment, the intensity at which you are running changes faster or slower
In general, I would advise that athletes & coaches implement this type of work in a short to long fashion, starting with a higher number of shorter repetitions, progressing through the year towards longer reps with a lower number of repetitions per workout. For example, early on you might do 5x70m at 90%, and by the end of the outdoor season you are doing 1-3 150m sprints at 95-99%.
Also, early in the year I’d advise using fluctuating tempo runs, whereas later in the year you can include more steady state sprints. You can go about your progressions in many ways, so long as there is an actual progression present in your training plan. If you are early in your pre-season training, chances are that you cannot sprint very far before your technique breaks down. As such, early in the year you can enhance speed endurance qualities with sprints as short as 40-60m, especially if they are done for capacity using back to back reps with short rest.
Haphazardly assigning workouts is not going to get you far, so be sure that whatever you do, it fits into a plan and progression toward your ultimate goal.
Speed Endurance – Differences in training between sprint events
Short sprinters (60m and 100m dash) can spend most of their time in ranges of 70m-120m, sparingly using repetitions upwards of 150m.
Long sprinters (200m and 400m dash) should use all ranges of speed endurance, including repetitions up to 150m at a high intensity.
200m dash training and 400m dash training should be somewhat similar, but 200m training is shaded toward speed and speed endurance, while 400m training is shaded toward speed endurance and special endurance.While all athletes should start short and progress towards longer reps over time, the range with which the athlete works in should be dictated by their event.
For example, a 60m specialist doesn’t have many good reasons to perform special endurance work, while a 200m runner should include some special endurance 1 type work (150m-300m), and a 400m sprinter should include a lot of speed endurance, special endurance 1, and some special endurance 2 work (300m-600m). The key point here is that the same ideas transcend all sprint events, but the specific distances used should change depending on the athlete’s primary event.
Speed endurance is the ability to maintain high sprint velocities over relatively long distances. Stated differently, speed endurance is the ability to minimize deceleration after reaching maximal velocity.
Speed endurance is a quality that should be trained by all speed athletes, but the ranges in which an athlete trains should be specific to their sprint event distance.
Speed endurance should be trained with distances of 70m-150m, or 7 seconds to 15 seconds of high intensity sprinting. Speed endurance work should be incorporated all year, with the specific workouts targeting the demands of the athlete’s primary event.
- Short to long
- High intensity to higher intensity
- Fluctuating intensity to steady intensity
- Short Sprints – 70m-120m, 120m-150m if shorter distances are proficient
- Long Sprints – 70m-150m, additional special endurance work depending on the event
- Special Endurance 1 = 150m-300m @ 95%+
- Special Endurance 2 = 300m-600m @ 95%+
- Alternatively measured as 7-17 seconds of work
- 300m-500m per session
- Upwards of 600m is risky and should only be done with very experienced athletes
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